A look at DNA-sharing services and privacy – What happens after consumers mail in their saliva for DNA analysis and upload the results to the internet

John Lopes, a crime scene investigator for the Sacramento County Sheriff's office, carries boxes of evidence taken from the home of murder suspect Joseph DeAngelo to a sheriff's vehicle Thursday, April 26, 2018, in Citrus Heights, Calif. DeAngelo, 72, was taken into custody Tuesday on suspicion of committing multiple homicides and rapes in the 1970s and 1980s in California. Authorities spent the day going through the home for evidence. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli)

By MATT O’BRIEN and MALCOLM RITTER,  Associated Press  NEW YORK (AP) 04/28 — The use of a genealogy website to track down a suspected California serial killer illustrates both the extraordinary power of DNA-sharing services and the broad privacy concerns that surround the fast-growing commercial market for genetic analysis.

TV commercials for companies such as 23andMe and Ancestry.com pitch their services as simple and fun ways of learning about family heritage and health. And while those companies on Friday sought to distance themselves from the free GEDmatch website used by police, the California case exposed broader questions about what happens after consumers mail their saliva away for DNA analysis and upload the results to the internet.

“For those of us who were skeptical about turning over our genetic information to corporations, this case proved all of those fears true,” said Daniel De Simone, a New Jersey researcher whose relatives have used DNA services.

The co-founder of GEDmatch said Friday that he is concerned about privacy after learning that law enforcement used the site and insists that his company does not “hand out data.”

“This was done without our knowledge, and it’s been overwhelming,” Curtis Rogers told The Associated Press.

Authorities have not publicly described details of the methods that led to the arrest of 72-year-old Joseph James DeAngelo, a former police officer. But some other researchers who use GEDmatch for a similar purpose told The Associated Press how it might have been done.

Joseph James DeAngelo, 72, who authorities suspect is the so-called Golden State Killer responsible for at least a dozen murders and 50 rapes in the 1970s and 80s, is accompanied by Sacramento County Public Defender Diane Howard, right, as he makes his first appearance, Friday, April 27, 2018, in Sacramento County Superior Court in Sacramento, Calif. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli)

 

Colleen Fitzpatrick and Margaret Press run the DNA Doe Project, a California-based nonprofit that uses DNA from unidentified bodies to look for relatives and learn the names of the dead. They suspect the authorities used a method similar to their own.

Investigators probably started with the complete DNA code from the killer. Then, after putting the data into a format that GEDmatch can read, they plugged it into the Florida-based site and asked it to look for matches, they said.

The site compares particular segments of genetic material, looking for similarities to other samples in its database. The degree of similarity can indicate how related two people are, finding ties as distant as fifth cousins, Fitzpatrick and Press said.

Once the site has returned a list of matches and degree of similarity, more sleuthing begins.

People in the database may have listed their names or just their emails, which in turn might identify them if they’ve used the same one on other sites. More information can come from searches of public records, Facebook and especially obituaries, which list parents and other relatives.

Then a researcher can turn to online collections of family trees, like those on Ancestry.com. There, one might uncover many trees that include the apparent relatives found on GEDmatch. That allows the construction of speculative trees that include the mystery person, plus those apparent relatives, in an effort to find overlaps that indicate common ancestors.

If common ancestors appear, lineage can be worked out in detail, up to the present day. Researches look for a spot that contains someone of the right geographic location and age to be the person under investigation.

“It’s part art and part science,” Press said.

T. Abbott, left, and John Lopes, right, from the Sacramento County Sheriff’s crime scene investigation office, conference about boxes of evidence gathered from the home of murder suspect Joseph DeAngelo, Thursday, April 26, 2018, in Citrus Heights, Calif. DeAngelo, 72, was taken into custod Tuesday on suspicion of committing multiple homicides and rapes in the 1970s and 1980s in California. Authorities spent the day going through the home for evidence. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli)

 

Authorities probe the backyard of the home of murder suspect Joseph DeAngelo, Thursday, April 26, 2018, in Citrus Heights, Calif. DeAngelo, 72, was taken into custody Tuesday on suspicion of committing multiple homicides and rapes in the 1970s and 1980s in California. Authorities spent the day going through the home for evidence. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli)

 

Court records obtained by The Associated Press on Friday showed that investigators had used information from genetic websites a year ago and misidentified an elderly Oregon man as a possible suspect.

A judge signed an order to compel a DNA sample from the 73-year-old man after detectives used a genetic profile based off DNA from crime scenes linked to the serial killer and compared it to information from YSearch.org, a free service that’s provided by FamilyTreeDNA.com.

Investigators cited a rare genetic marker, which the Oregon man shared with the killer, to get the judge to issue the order. They also created a family tree and used public records to identify the Oregon man.

A spokeswoman for FamilyTreeDNA.com did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

To some, scouring this publicly shared data to track down the so-called Golden State Killer seems like a worthwhile cause. But for others it raises alarms.

De Simone said he has never used a DNA ancestry service.

“What’s especially troubling to me is that neither had DeAngelo,” he said. He compared the situation to Facebook’s data-protection scandal involving Cambridge Analytica because “it’s not only users that are caught up in this net, it’s also those with relationships to users. In this case, though, it’s not just networked relationships, it’s actual genetic relationships.”

The big commercial databases insist they have much stricter customer privacy practices than websites such as GEDmatch and don’t hand over data without a court order.

“As a private platform, we do not allow the comparison of genetic data processed by any third party to genetic profiles within our database. Further, we do not share customer data with any public databases or with entities that may increase the risk of law enforcement access,” 23andMe spokesman Andy Kill said in an email.

It’s unclear whether the California case will affect customers’ trust in DNA services overall.

“These companies are saying that they’re different,” said Tiffany Li, a technology attorney and Yale Law School fellow. “I think what’s key is this open-source database is made up of data profiles that people mostly got from those private companies.”

Li said the demand for personal genetic information that helps uncover long-lost relatives and family backgrounds is high enough that this privacy “dust-up” will likely blow over. But, she said, it should serve as a warning for stewards of DNA databases to be more careful and more transparent about how data is used.

“They should at least try to do more to make people aware,” Li said. “The terms could be clearer. The companies could also decide to self-regulate before Congress gets to them and create data standards about the DNA they store.”

___

O’Brien reported from Providence, Rhode Island. AP Technology Writer Mae Anderson in San Francisco contributed to this report.

https://www.apnews.com/bf26ab36786e42c69bb21c891ba095c5/AP-Explains:-A-look-at-DNA-sharing-services-and-privacy

Copyright 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Posted in: Arrests, Crime & Criminals, Evidence, Forensics/DNA Evidence, Homicide, Investigations, Murder/Attempted Murder, Police Equipment/Technology, Serial Killings, Sexual Assault/Sexual Misconduct

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Terms of Use for Posting Comments

Terms of Use

This site (the “Site”) is operated and maintained by Law Enforcement Education Foundation, Corporation (“Company”). Throughout the Site, the terms “we”, “us” and “our” refer to Company.  The words “user,” “you” and “your” as used herein refer to you.

Please read these terms and conditions of use (“Terms of Use”) carefully before contributing content. If you do not agree to these Terms of Use, please do not contribute content. Your use of the Site is subject to the Terms and Conditions found here .

By contributing content to the Site, you represent and warrant that you are at least eighteen (18) years old and that you have read and understand these Terms of Use and any amendments thereto and agree to be bound by them. If you are not at least eighteen (18) years old or you do not agree and accept these Terms of Use, you are prohibited from contributing content.

From time to time, we may permit users to submit content to the Site.  You hereby acknowledge and agree that by submitting remarks, comments, suggestions, ideas, graphics, feedback, edits, concepts, comments, photographs, illustrations and other materials (other than personal information and/or registration information) through the Site (individually and collectively, “Submissions”), you (i) grant us a nonexclusive, royalty-free, perpetual, transferable, irrevocable and fully sub-licensable right to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, translate, distribute, publish, create derivative works from and publicly display and perform such Submissions throughout the world in any media, now known or hereafter created, without attribution to you; (ii) grant us the right to pursue at law any person or entity that violates your and/or our rights in your Submissions; and (iii) forever waive any and all of your rights, including but not limited to moral rights, if any, in and to your Submissions, including, without limitation, any all rights or requirements of attribution or identification of you as the author of the Submission or any derivative thereof.  We reserve the right to remove any of your Submissions from the Site, in whole or in part, without notice to you, for any reason or no reason.

Submissions are made voluntarily. Any submissions which include personally identifiable information are subject to our Privacy Policy found here .  You may not upload or otherwise publish content on the Site that (i) is confidential to you or any third party; (ii) is untrue, inaccurate, false or other than an original work of your authorship; (iii) that relates to or impersonates any other person; (iv) violates the copyright, trademark, patent or other intellectual property rights of any person or entity; (v) contains any content, personally identifiable information or other information, or materials of any kind that relate or refer to any other person or entity other than the provider of the products, goods or services to which the Submission relates; or (vi) violates any law, or in any manner infringes or interferes with the rights of others, including but not limited to the use of names, information, or materials that (A) libel, defame, or invade the privacy of any third party, (B) are obscene or pornographic, (C) are harmful, threatening, offensive, abusive, harassing, vulgar, false or inaccurate, racially, sexually, ethnically or are otherwise objectionable or otherwise contrary to the laws of any place where such Submissions may be accessed; (D) constitute personal attacks on other individuals; (E) promote criminal, immoral or illegal activity; (F) promote or advertise any person, product or service or solicit funds; or (G) are deemed confidential by any contract or policy.

You are solely responsible for any Submissions you make and their accuracy. We take no responsibility and assume no liability for any Submissions posted by you or any third party.

Unless approved by us in writing in advance, you agree not to: (i) provide or create a link to the Site; or (ii) create any frames at any other sites pertaining to any of the content located on the Site.

We reserve the right, in our discretion, to update, change or replace any part of these Terms of Use for Posting Comments by posting updates and/or changes to our Site.  It is your responsibility to check this page periodically for changes.  Your continued use of, and/or access to the Site, following the posting of any changes to these Terms of Use for Posting Comments, constitutes your acceptance of those changes.